What is Swar?
We often have two contrasts in sounds, one of which is called ‘Swar’ and the other is ‘noise’. Some people also consider the sound of conversation as a distinction.
Generally, when a sound is produced by regular and periodic vibrations, it is called ‘Swar’. In contrast, when the vibration is irregular and complicated or mixed, that sound is called ‘noise’. The colloquial sound is placed in the category between ‘swar’ and ‘noise’.
In short, understand that regular movement-numbered sound is called ‘swar’. This sound is used in music, which sounds sweet to the ears and pleases the mind. This sound is called Naad in the language of music. On this basis, the musical sound is called ‘swar’.
In the field of Indian musicians, from one voice to double the sound, there is a musical group-like naad, which is called ‘Shruti’, there are 22 shruti.
When the order of the shrutis in the swar ‘Sa, Re, Ga, M, P, Dha, Ni’ is 4, 3, 4, 4, 3, 2, then those swars are called pure swars. Full names of these pure swars
- Shadaj (षड्ज)
- Rishabh (ऋषभ)
- Gandhar (गंधार)
- Madhyam (मध्यम)
- Pancham (पंचम)
- Dhaivat (धैवत)
- Nishad (निषाद )
For the convenience of pronunciation and singing, the first letter of each of them has been taken and thus their abbreviated names are ‘Sa, Re, Ga, M, P, Dha, Ni’.
Shuddha(Pure), Tivra(Sharp) And Vikrit(deformed) or Komal (mild) Swars
The seven swars mentioned earlier are called pure swars. Sa and pa are considered immovable in them because they remain fixed in their places. The remaining five swars have been given two forms. Because they move from their place, hence they are called as komal(mild) or tivra(sharp) swars.
When the regular voice of a swar is lowered, it is called a komal swar and a swar is called a tivra swar when it goes above its regular voice. Re, Ga, Dha, Ni These four swars move down from their places and become komal. And when they are again delivered to their assigned places, they are called pure swars. But when the middle swar ‘M’ moves away from its intended place, it does not go down Because its location is already low, Therefore when the tone changes, it will go high and will be called Tivra(sharp) swar. In the common speaking of the singers, the komal swars are also called the utre(descending ) swars and the tivra swars are called chdhe(ascended) swars. In this way, two fixed and five pure and five deformed are all counted as twelve swars.
Five Pure swar:
रे, ग, म, ध, नि (Re, Ga, m, Dh, Ni)
Five Deformed swar:
रे, ग, मे, ध, नि (re, ga, M, dh, ni)
Here मे (M) is tivra(sharp) and rest are mild or minor
Two Immovable (अचल ) Swar :
सा, प (Sa, P)